VDE power cord

Argentina power cord

12:07, 2010-Jan-4 .. Link

Polarised plugs and sockets are those designed to connect only in one orientation, so the live and neutral conductors of the outlet are connected (respectively) to the live and neutral poles of the appliance. Polarisation is maintained by the shape, size, or position of plug pins and socket holes to ensure that a plug fits only one way into a socket. This is so switches interrupt the live wire. If the neutral wire were interrupted instead, the device would be deactivated but its internal wiring would still be live. This is a shock hazard; if the energised parts are touched, current travels to earth through the body. Devices that especially present this hazard include toasters and other appliances with exposed heating elements, which with reversed polarity can remain live even when they are cool to the touch, and screw-in light bulbs, which with reversed polarity, exposed portions of the socket shell remain energised even though the lamp is switched off. In the 19th century and early 20th century, electrical cable was often insulated using cloth, rubber and paper. Plastic materials are generally used today, except for high reliability power cables.

Power cables may be either fixed or detachable from the appliance. In the case of detachable leads, the appliance end of the power cord has a socket (female connector) rather than a plug (male connector) to link it to the appliance, to avoid the dangers from having a live protruding pin. Cords may also have twist-locking features, or other attachments to prevent accidental disconnection at one or both ends. A cord set may include accessories such as fuses for overcurrent protection, a pilot lamp to indicate voltage is present, or a leakage current detector. Power cords for sensitive instruments, or audio/video equipment may also include a shield over the power conductors to minimize electromagnetic interference.

IEC power cables come in high-temperature and low-temperature variants, as well as various current capacities. The connectors have slightly different shapes to ensure that it is not possible to substitute a cable with a lower temperature or current rating, but that it is possible to use an over-rated cable. Cords also have different types of exterior jackets available to accommodate environmental variables such as moisture, temperature, oils, sunlight, flexibility, and heavy wear. For example, a heating appliance may come with a cord designed to withstand accidental contact with heated surfaces. An extension reel is an extension lead that rolls up, usually into the socket end, which in some cases has more than one socket on it (often 2 or 4). Another type of extension reel hangs near the plug end and permits the user to draw the cord out by grasping the socket end. Such cables can only be used to carry full rated current when fully extended since the portion on the reel constitutes a concentration of the loss power (the result of its series resistance) which is not suitably dissipated unless most of the cable is unreeled to expose it to ambient air. Some extension cords also incorporate safety features, such as a polarized plug and receptacle, grounded terminals, a 'power-on' indicator, a fusible link, or even a residual-current device (also known as a ground-fault circuit interrupter or GFCI). Worldwide, more than a dozen different types of connectors are used for fixed building wiring. Products sold in many different markets can use a standardized IEC connector and then use a detachable power cord to match the local electrical outlets. This simplifies safety approvals, factory testing, and production since the power cord is a low-cost item available as a commodity. Note that the same types of appliance-side connectors are used with both 110 V and 230 V power cables, so care must be used when moving appliances between countries with different voltage standards — substituting a power cord that matches local power outlets will result in an incorrect voltage being applied to the appliance or equipment. Some devices have a slide-switch to adapt to different voltages, or wide-ranging power supplies. Unless explicitly labelled as capable of handling local voltages, this is very likely to damage or destroy the appliance. Any current-carrying conductor, including a cable, radiates an electromagnetic field. Likewise, any conductor or cable will pick up energy from any existing electromagnetic field around it. These effects are often undesirable, in the first case amounting to unwanted transmission of energy which may adversely affect nearby equipment or other parts of the same piece of equipment; and in the second case, unwanted pickup of noise which may mask the desired signal being carried by the cable, or, if the cable is carrying power-supply or control voltages, pollute them to such an extent as to cause equipment malfunction. Extension cords come in various lengths and thicknesses, and service duties. In general, the more power needed by the appliance, the thicker the cord should be (that is, larger wires inside). Cords to be used outdoors, in wet areas, around oils, or exposed to sunlight for long periods should be selected for such specific service. IEC 60309 (formerly IEC 309) is an international standard from the International Electrotechnical Commission for "plugs, socket-outlets and couplers for industrial purposes". The highest voltage allowed by the standard is 690 V DC or AC; the highest current, 250 A; and the highest frequency, 500 Hz. The temperature range is ?25 °C to 40 °C. Mass-impregnated paper-insulated medium voltage cables were commercially practical by 1895. During World War II several varieties of synthetic rubber and polyethylene insulation were applied to cables AC power plugs and sockets are devices for removably connecting electrically-operated devices to the commercial power supply. An electric plug is a male electrical connector with contact prongs to connect mechanically and electrically to slots in the matching female socket. Wall sockets (sometimes also known as power points,[1][2] power sockets, electric receptacles, or electrical outlets) are female electrical connectors that have slots or holes which accept and deliver current to the prongs of inserted plugs. To reduce the risk of injury or death by electric shock, some plug and socket systems incorporate various safety features. Sockets are designed to accept only matching plugs and reject all others. Other countries also regulate the use of extension cables but the specific conditions and the nature of the regulation varies. In Europe and elsewhere where the normal domestic voltage is around 230 V, there is less risk of causing fire through overheating of cables for any given power due to the lower current. However most European extension reel cables now include an automatic current cut-out to avoid misuse of the cable. This requires manual re-setting if excess current is drawn through the cable. (American multiplug cords also include such a device but single- or triple-outlet cords do not.) Some extension cords also incorporate safety features, such as a polarized plug and receptacle, grounded terminals, a 'power-on' indicator, a fusible link, or even a residual-current device (also known as a ground-fault circuit interrupter or GFCI). IEC 60309 (formerly IEC 309) is an international standard from the International Electrotechnical Commission for "plugs, socket-outlets and couplers for industrial purposes". The highest voltage allowed by the standard is 690 V DC or AC; the highest current, 250 A; and the highest frequency, 500 Hz. The temperature range is ?25 °C to 40 °C. The family includes two and three-conductor connectors of various current capacities and temperature ratings, all designed specifically for the purpose of attaching a mains power cord to a piece of equipment. Allowing an interchangeable mains power cord makes it very easy for equipment manufacturers to sell their equipment anywhere in the world as long as their equipment can operate on both 120/240 volt, 50/60 Hz mains power. However users must still check voltage when moving equipment between regions as not all equipment with these connectors is multi-voltage and some equipment that is requires manual switching between voltage ranges. Electrical cables may be made more flexible by stranding the wires. In this process, smaller individual wires are twisted or braided together to produce larger wires that are more flexible than solid wires of similar size. Bunching small wires before concentric stranding adds the most flexibility. Copper wires in a cable may be bare, or they may be coated with a thin layer of another material: most often tin but sometimes gold, silver or some other material. Tin, gold, and silver are much less prone to oxidisation than copper, which may lengthen wire life, and makes soldering easier. Tight lays during stranding makes the cable extensible (CBA - as in telephone handset cords). A power cable is an assembly of two or more electrical conductors, usually held together with an overall sheath. The assembly is used for transmission of electrical power. Power cables may be installed as permanent wiring within buildings, buried in the ground, run overhead, or exposed. Flexible power cables are used for portable devices, mobile tools and machinery.

For a musical note played on an electric guitar see Power chord

A power cord, line cord, or mains cable is a cord or cable that temporarily connects an electrical appliance to the distribution circuits of an electrical power source via a wall socket or extension cord.

IEC 60309 (formerly IEC 309) is an international standard from the International Electrotechnical Commission for "plugs, socket-outlets and couplers for industrial purposes". The highest voltage allowed by the standard is 690 V DC or AC; the highest current, 250 A; and the highest frequency, 500 Hz. The temperature range is ?25 °C to 40 °C. The family includes two and three-conductor connectors of various current capacities and temperature ratings, all designed specifically for the purpose of attaching a mains power cord to a piece of equipment. Allowing an interchangeable mains power cord makes it very easy for equipment manufacturers to sell their equipment anywhere in the world as long as their equipment can operate on both 120/240 volt, 50/60 Hz mains power. However users must still check voltage when moving equipment between regions as not all equipment with these connectors is multi-voltage and some equipment that is requires manual switching between voltage ranges. Yellow NEMA 5-15 Extension CordIn the USA where the domestic voltage is 120 V, the National Electrical Code (NEC) prohibits the use of extension cords in a 20 A circuit unless they are of 16 AWG or larger (for example, 14 AWG or 12 AWG). As with other flexible cords, the NEC also prohibits their use where attached to building surfaces, or concealed inside walls, floors, or ceilings, above suspended ceilings, or where run through holes or other openings (windows, doors) in structures (with limited exceptions). Cords run across the floor should be covered with a suitable device to protect them from physical damage. Some extension cords also incorporate safety features, such as a polarized plug and receptacle, grounded terminals, a 'power-on' indicator, a fusible link, or even a residual-current device (also known as a ground-fault circuit interrupter or GFCI). Extension cords come in various lengths and thicknesses, and service duties. In general, the more power needed by the appliance, the thicker the cord should be (that is, larger wires inside). Cords to be used outdoors, in wet areas, around oils, or exposed to sunlight for long periods should be selected for such specific service.

For a musical note played on an electric guitar see Power chord

A power cord, line cord, or mains cable is a cord or cable that temporarily connects an electrical appliance to the distribution circuits of an electrical power source via a wall socket or extension cord.

Cord sets must be distinguished from plug-in wall mounted power supplies, where the connector also contains a transformer, and possibly rectifiers, filters and regulators. Unwary substitution of a standard mains-voltage connector for the power supply would result in application of full line voltage to the connected device, resulting in its destruction and possible fire or personal injury. AC power plugs and sockets are devices for removably connecting electrically-operated devices to the commercial power supply. An electric plug is a male electrical connector with contact prongs to connect mechanically and electrically to slots in the matching female socket. Wall sockets (sometimes also known as power points,[1][2] power sockets, electric receptacles, or electrical outlets) are female electrical connectors that have slots or holes which accept and deliver current to the prongs of inserted plugs. To reduce the risk of injury or death by electric shock, some plug and socket systems incorporate various safety features. Sockets are designed to accept only matching plugs and reject all others. C19 and C20 connectors, with pins rated at 16 A, are used for some IT applications where higher currents are required, for instance, on high-power workstations and servers, UPSs, PDUs and similar equipment. They are similar to C13 and C14 connectors, but rectangular (without chamfered corners) and with slightly larger pins, rotated so they are parallel to the long axis of the connector. AC power plugs and sockets are devices for removably connecting electrically-operated devices to the commercial power supply. An electric plug is a male electrical connector with contact prongs to connect mechanically and electrically to slots in the matching female socket. Wall sockets (sometimes also known as power points,[1][2] power sockets, electric receptacles, or electrical outlets) are female electrical connectors that have slots or holes which accept and deliver current to the prongs of inserted plugs. To reduce the risk of injury or death by electric shock, some plug and socket systems incorporate various safety features. Sockets are designed to accept only matching plugs and reject all others. An extension cord, power extender, or extension lead is a length of flexible electrical power cable (flex) with a plug on one end and one or more sockets on the other end (usually of the same type as the plug). The term usually refers to mains (household AC) extensions but is also used to refer to extensions for other types of cabling. If the plug and receptacle are of different types, the term "adapter cord" may be used. Extension cable is also used, but that has a distinct meaning from extension cord for many people. A power cord is similar but the socket end is designed to mate with a panel plug (usually IEC or figure 8 style) and is usually much shorter. With IEC connectors cables are frequently seen with a line plug and socket. These may be considered either as powercords (if IEC outlets are in use) or as extensions (if used to extend a powercord.) The first power distribution system developed by Thomas Edison in 1882 in New York City used copper rods, wrapped in jute and placed in rigid pipes filled with a bituminous compound.[1] Although vulcanized rubber had been patented by Charles Goodyear in 1844, it was not applied to cable insulation until the 1880s, when it was used for lighting circuits.[2] Rubber-insulated cable was used for 11,000 volt circuits in 1897 installed for the Niagara Falls power project. 3-conductor 10 A. Most desktop personal computers use the ten-amp panel-mounting C14 inlet to attach the power cord to the power supply, as do many monitors, printers and other peripherals. Many AT form factor computers also provided a panel-mounting C13 outlet controlled by the physical power switch for powering the monitor. With the arrival of ATX the readily accessible permanent power switch was removed and the outlet was either permanently powered or completely removed. IEC power cables come in high-temperature and low-temperature variants, as well as various current capacities. The connectors have slightly different shapes to ensure that it is not possible to substitute a cable with a lower temperature or current rating, but that it is possible to use an over-rated cable. Cords also have different types of exterior jackets available to accommodate environmental variables such as moisture, temperature, oils, sunlight, flexibility, and heavy wear. For example, a heating appliance may come with a cord designed to withstand accidental contact with heated surfaces. Worldwide, more than a dozen different types of connectors are used for fixed building wiring. Products sold in many different markets can use a standardized IEC connector and then use a detachable power cord to match the local electrical outlets. This simplifies safety approvals, factory testing, and production since the power cord is a low-cost item available as a commodity. Note that the same types of appliance-side connectors are used with both 110 V and 230 V power cables, so care must be used when moving appliances between countries with different voltage standards — substituting a power cord that matches local power outlets will result in an incorrect voltage being applied to the appliance or equipment. Some devices have a slide-switch to adapt to different voltages, or wide-ranging power supplies. Unless explicitly labelled as capable of handling local voltages, this is very likely to damage or destroy the appliance.

Power cables may be either fixed or detachable from the appliance. In the case of detachable leads, the appliance end of the power cord has a socket (female connector) rather than a plug (male connector) to link it to the appliance, to avoid the dangers from having a live protruding pin. Cords may also have twist-locking features, or other attachments to prevent accidental disconnection at one or both ends. A cord set may include accessories such as fuses for overcurrent protection, a pilot lamp to indicate voltage is present, or a leakage current detector. Power cords for sensitive instruments, or audio/video equipment may also include a shield over the power conductors to minimize electromagnetic interference.

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